A utilities subway, Paris, France
Utilities subways can play an essential role in urban environments. In many countries these are predominantly located under public highways, but not exclusively so. Even where they are located under the public highway, the ownership, rights, and responsibilities interfaces must be fully comprehended to enable effective urban management.
Utilities subways enable the locating of cables and pipes within a purpose-built environment, enabling effective inspection, maintenance, repair, and replacement of essential urban infrastructure without digging up the highway surface, which could adversely affect highway traffic flows (www.parliament.co.uk, 2011; Valdenebro and Gimena, 2018; Li, et al., 2019). Fig.1, shows an example of a utilities tunnel in Paris, France, located under a public highway.